However, it cannot be said that the mind is without any experience of time and happiness. Two things may be noted in this recollection. One is the mentioning of time-factor. One notes that he had slept for a long time. This means that the experience of time did happen.
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Secondly, the experience of happiness. Several important features involved in the states of consciousness are the workings of the cognitive seats. The very approach of philosophers happen in two stages.
Vedanta: Why Are We All so Unhappy?
One, in the examination of the outward reality. This provides enough stimulus for the knowledge to occur. This apart, once the stimulus is picked up by the sense-organs, it goes through the storage and interpretational part. This happens in the stages of Manas, Buddhi and Sakshi. When a person drives a car across the streets, he may see and motel and a restaurant.
These are external objects which provide stimulus or input. Once these are picked up, it is taken through the senses to that part of the cognitive seat which is the Manas. This Manas acts in multiple ways. It not only records the coming of the stimulus but also does things to store in the form of mental impressions.
These mental impressions are termed as Samskaras. Samskaras are the root cause for memory recall or remembrance. It is only by this Samskara that one recalls what he or she had learnt or seen. Without the postulation of Samskaras, one cannot explain the recall. Entire psychology resets on the role of Samskara. This is aided by the Manas. The Buddhi is yet another aspect which happens at a still higher level. It is the decision-maker based on the data of the aspect of the Manas.
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In the previously seen example, one may look at a restaurant while moving on a car. The interpretation, is no doubt there in the Manas aspect. However, it is left to the aspect of the Buddhi to make a decision whether to stop by the restaurant or to move ahead. This role of Buddhi is entirely discretional and is reason-bound for most of the time. Since the subconscious and the unconscious mind work mechanically, such change is possible only by the conscious mind through its special power of self-determination. Thus, for the development of the mind, we have to feed the mind with rich food, nourish it regularly, strengthen it, and enrich it.
As a result, we can have good understanding, peace, wisdom and joy. In this sense, our mind, illuminated by the Self, becomes the Superconscious mind. Since sensation, feeling and emotion or any other subjective matter were not observable, they could not be the subject matter of psychology.
As a result, many of the studies in psychology remained restricted to overt activities of an organism for many-many years in the hands of behaviourists. But, today, we are not agreeing with the behaviourists and are studying mental processes in psychology as well. In order to have an effective behaviour, we try to maintain a balance between the two. We can take the example of understanding love in a laboratory.
Is it not a fact that by putting love under scientific scrutiny, we are destroying its mystery? In reality, love includes affection and anger, excitement and boredom, stability and change, bond and freedom, etc. This, therefore, cannot be known by any scientific method. This is such a nice blend that no factor is dominating upon anyone. Like this, every human behaviour needs to be effective spiritual and needs to be understood finally by experience.
In any science, the methods of investigation depend largely on the subject matter. Accordingly, like all scientists, psychologists construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses. To describe, predict, and explain behaviour and mental processes, psychologists use several methods: Introspection, Naturalistic Observation, Questionnaire and Survey, Case Study, Correlation and Experimentation.
Every method has been found to be useful but, at the same time, suffering from certain limitations. Even the experimental method, which is considered to be the ultimate method of psychology today, is subject to certain serious objections. In such situation, as suggested by a good number of Indian thinkers and Western scientists e. McDermott, ; Fitz, ; Denning, , Intuition can be a very useful, and perhaps the only method in some cases, in Psychology.
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We all have this system in place but, the irony is, we have not yet learned how to use it fully: We just need to recognize it, to tune in to our intuition Clare, It is just more highly developed in some people than in others. Most people are unaware of their intuitive abilities and therefore do not use them to their advantage. We have created a society that honours the servant and has forgotten the gift. It is truth obtained by internal apprehension, without the aid of perception or the operation of the reasoning powers.
It is a direct vision and apprehension of the Divine Reality underlying the manifested and the unmanifested universe. Day , while defining intuition as a nonlinear and nonempirical process of gaining and interpreting information, says further that intuition responds to questions. Our rational mind interprets the information provided by these senses for more efficient survival. Being mindful means giving full concentration to whatever we are doing in the present, having no real awareness of anything else, becoming completely absorbed, lost in the activity and the moment.
It prompts a person to think in certain ways that create the results which contribute to well-being, allowing synchronicity to manifest Denning, According to Reed and English , by paying attention to the thoughts, feelings, and images that come to mind, we are learning to tune into our intuition which is a natural gift born in everyone. In order to have the intuitive experience through The Intuitive Heart, Reed and English suggest the following six steps:.
Modern science, particularly psychology which wants to understand today the superconscious mind and spiritual behaviour of human beings, must come to realize that, ultimately, the method of intuition is the only method of discerning the truth. Without developing the intuition, the intellectual remains imperfect and blind to the truth behind the appearances. The mortal, finite, limited senses and the intellect, cannot comprehend the Reality which is immortal and all-pervading.
Jung and Indian Thought
Frogs into princes: Neuro-linguistic programming. UT: Real People Press. Fitz, H. Intuition: Its nature and uses in human experience. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas.
McDermott, R. Atman soul and Brahman as Vishnu are understood as two completely different entities. Bhaskara, in postulating Upadhika , considers both identity and difference to be equally real. As the causal principle, Brahman is considered non-dual and formless pure being and intelligence. Matter and its limitations are considered real, not a manifestation of ignorance.
Bhaskara advocated bhakti as dhyana meditation directed toward the transcendental Brahman. He refuted the idea of Maya and denied the possibility of liberation in bodily existence. Brahman God , souls chit and matter or the universe achit are considered as three equally real and co-eternal realities. Brahman is the controller niyanta , the soul is the enjoyer bhokta , and the material universe is the object enjoyed bhogya. The Brahman is Krishna , the ultimate cause who is omniscient, omnipotent, all-pervading Being. He is the efficient cause of the universe because, as Lord of Karma and internal ruler of souls, He brings about creation so that the souls can reap the consequences of their karma.
God is considered to be the material cause of the universe because creation was a manifestation of His powers of soul chit and matter achit ; creation is a transformation parinama of God's powers. He can be realized only through a constant effort to merge oneself with His nature through meditation and devotion. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was the prime exponent of Achintya-Bheda-Abheda.
This school asserts that Krishna is Bhagavan of the bhakti yogins , the Brahman of the jnana yogins , and has a divine potency that is inconceivable. He is all-pervading and thus in all parts of the universe non-difference , yet he is inconceivably more difference. This school is at the foundation of the Gaudiya Vaishnava religious tradition. The important approaches followed by the most noted proponents of different schools of Vedanta are summarized below:.
Madhva said, "Man is the servant of God," and established his Dvaita philosophy. Ramanuja said, "Man is a ray or spark of God," and established his Visishtadvaita philosophy. Vedanta philosophies discuss three fundamental metaphysical categories and the relations between the three. Shankara, in formulating Advaita, talks of two conceptions of Brahman : the higher Brahman as undifferentiated Being, and a lower Brahman endowed with qualities as the creator of the universe. The God of Vishishtadvaita is accessible to the devotee, yet remains the Absolute, with differentiated attributes.
Madhva, in expounding Dvaita philosophy, maintains that Vishnu is the supreme God, thus identifying the Brahman , or absolute reality, of the Upanishads with a personal god, as Ramanuja had done before him. Vallabha, in his shuddhadvaita philosophy, not only accepts the triple ontological essence of the Brahman , but also His manifestation as personal God Ishvara , as matter and as individual souls. The different schools of Vedanta have historically disagreed as to which of the six are epistemologically valid. For example, while Advaita Vedanta accepts all six pramanas ,  Vishishtadvaita and Dvaita accept only three pramanas perception, inference and testimony.
But there are two different views on the status of the "effect", that is, the world. Most schools of Vedanta, as well as Samkhya, support Parinamavada , the idea that the world is a real transformation parinama of Brahman. In contrast to Badarayana, Adi Shankara and Advaita Vedantists hold a different view, Vivartavada , which says that the effect, the world, is merely an unreal vivarta transformation of its cause, Brahman.
This movement draws its philosophical and theistic basis from Vishishtadvaita. A large number of devotional Vaishnavism traditions of east India, north India particularly the Braj region , west and central India are based on various sub-schools of Bhedabheda Vedanta. Tirumular , the Tamil Shaiva Siddhanta scholar, credited with creating "Vedanta—Siddhanta" Advaita Vedanta and Shaiva Siddhanta synthesis , stated, "becoming Shiva is the goal of Vedanta and Siddhanta ; all other goals are secondary to it and are vain.
Shaktism , or traditions where a goddess is considered identical to Brahman , has similarly flowered from a syncretism of the monist premises of Advaita Vedanta and dualism premises of Samkhya—Yoga school of Hindu philosophy, sometimes referred to as Shaktadavaitavada literally, the path of nondualistic Shakti. Neo-Vedanta, variously called as "Hindu modernism", "neo-Hinduism", and "neo-Advaita", is a term that denotes some novel interpretations of Hinduism that developed in the 19th century,  presumably as a reaction to the colonial British rule.
Western orientalists , in their search for its "essence", attempted to formulate a notion of "Hinduism" based on a single interpretation of Vedanta as a unified body of religious praxis. King , pp. The neo-Vedantins argued that the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy were perspectives on a single truth, all valid and complementary to each other.
Ramakrishna, Vivekananda and Aurobindo have been labeled neo-Vedantists the latter called it realistic Advaita , a view of Vedanta that rejects the Advaitins' idea that the world is illusory. As Aurobindo phrased it, philosophers need to move from 'universal illusionism' to 'universal realism', in the strict philosophical sense of assuming the world to be fully real.
A major proponent in the popularization of this Universalist and Perennialist interpretation of Advaita Vedanta was Vivekananda ,  who played a major role in the revival of Hinduism. Nicholson , p. Matilal criticizes Neo-Hinduism as an oddity developed by West-inspired Western Indologists and attributes it to the flawed Western perception of Hinduism in modern India. In his scathing criticism of this school of reasoning, Matilal , pp. The so-called 'traditional' outlook is in fact a construction. Indian history shows that the tradition itself was self-conscious and critical of itself, sometimes overtly and sometimes covertly.
It was never free from internal tensions due to the inequalities that persisted in a hierarchical society, nor was it without confrontation and challenge throughout its history. Hence Gandhi, Vivekananda and Tagore were not simply 'transplants from Western culture, products arising solely from confrontation with the west.
It is rather odd that, although the early Indologists' romantic dream of discovering a pure and probably primitive, according to some form of Hinduism or Buddhism as the case may be now stands discredited in many quarters; concepts like neo-Hinduism are still bandied about as substantial ideas or faultless explanation tools by the Western 'analytic' historians as well as the West-inspired historians of India. An exchange of ideas has been taking place between the western world and Asia since the late 18th century as a result of colonization of parts of Asia by Western powers.
This also influenced western religiosity. The first translation of Upanishads , published in two parts in and , significantly influenced Arthur Schopenhauer , who called them the consolation of his life. According to Nakamura , p. The prevalence of Vedanta thought is found not only in philosophical writings but also in various forms of Hindu literature, such as the epics, lyric poetry, drama and so forth. The influence of Vedanta is prominent in the sacred literatures of Hinduism, such as the various Puranas, Samhitas, Agamas and Tantras Frithjof Schuon summarizes the influence of Vedanta on Hinduism as follows:.
The Vedanta contained in the Upanishads, then formulated in the Brahma Sutra , and finally commented and explained by Shankara, is an invaluable key for discovering the deepest meaning of all the religious doctrines and for realizing that the Sanatana Dharma secretly penetrates all the forms of traditional spirituality. It has become the philosophical paradigm of Hinduism "par excellence".
The Brahman, as conceived in the Upanishads and defined by Sankara, is clearly the same as Spinoza's 'Substantia'. Helena Blavatsky , a founder of the Theosophical Society , also compared Spinoza's religious thought to Vedanta, writing in an unfinished essay,.